Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation

B. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, W. Brütting

erschienen 2009 Org. Electron. 10, 478–485 (2009)
[DOI link]
DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2009.02.002

In spite of huge progress in improving the internal quantum efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), these devices still suffer from poor light out-coupling. Loss mechanisms are for example waveguiding in the organic layers and the substrate as well as the excitation of surface plasmons at metallic electrodes. Their relative strength and the mutual dependence on the OLED structure have been studied both experimentally and by numerical simulation. Here, we consider the impact of the radiative quantum efficiency of the emitter material on predictions of fight extraction from OLEDs. Competing processes resulting in non-radiative recombination of charge carriers usually reduce the emitter quantum efficiency in a real device. We show that optical simulation leads to erroneous conclusions when neglecting these competing processes. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method, which allows determining both the radiative quantum efficiency and the charge recombination factor via simulation based analysis of experimental data. This analysis of device efficiency is applied on a set of red-emitting electrophosphorescent devices. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.