Electrodynamic Properties of Graphene (Mikhailov, Moskalenko)

Graphene is a new two-dimensional material first obtained in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 for this discovery. Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms forming a hexagonal lattice. Electrons in graphene move as massless particles. As a consequence of the two-dimensional nature and the massless energy spectrum of electrons, graphene has a lot of interesting and unusual physical properties.

We theoretically study electrodynamic properties of graphene: its interaction with electromagnetic radiation, spectra of plasma waves in it, nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena. For example, we have predicted ( that graphene should have strongly nonlinear electromagnetic properties: being irradiated by an electromagnetic wave with the frequency $\omega$ it should emit radiation at higher frequency harmonics $3\omega$, $5\omega$, ... ; being irradiated by two monochromatic waves with the frequencies $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$, it should emit radiation at the mixed frequencies  $n\omega_1+m\omega_2$ with integer numbers $n$ and $m$, and so on. The predicted frequency mixing and frequency multiplication effects have been already experimentally observed at microwave and visible-light frequencies.

The nonlinear electrodynamic phenomena can be used for the creation of new types of emitters and detectors in different parts of the electromagnetic wave spectrum. Their study is therefore very important for further development of microwave, terahertz and optoelectronics.